While celebrating the Fourth of July, why not take time for some thoughtful reading?
Joel K. Bourne, Jr. The End of Plenty: The Race to Feed a Crowded World. WW Norton, 2015.
Here’s my blurb for this one:
The End of Plenty takes a thoroughly researched and exceptionally thoughtful and balanced look at the consequences of industrial farming. Joel Bourne’s courageous conclusion: to feed the world’s burgeoning population, agriculture must change and population increase must stop. His book should convince every reader of the compelling need to address world food problems through more skillful and sustainable agronomy, but also through education, especially of women, and universal family planning.
Because transportation from rural areas is expensive and trucks are few and far between (one result of the U.S. embargo), the Cuban government is promoting urban agriculture. Our Food First tour group went to a small organic farm and store (Organopónico) in Havana:
The farm grows a wide variety of vegetable crops, some outdoors but some under mesh. The sun is hot.
The farm sells produce to local residents. I watched a steady procession of people coming to shop, only to be disappointed at the scarcity of items available. It’s too hot to grow much this time of year.
The board lists prices in pesos (indicated by $)—$4 to $10 a pound.
Another of the many Cuban contradictions: Cuba has two currencies, pesos and CUCs (Cuban Convertables). A CUC is roughly equivalent to one dollar, or 24 pesos. Salaries are paid in pesos. Markets sell in CUCs or, recently, both. This system, designed to take advantage of tourist dollars, is slated to end soon.
We also visited the much larger 25-acre farm in Havana’s Alamar neighborhood.
You can see the surrounding apartments in this photo, but not the next one.
With no money for gas or tractors, plowing gets done with oxen.
This farm also has a store.
I waited on a long line to buy a glass of freshly squeezed sugar cane juice.
This was incredibly delicious and totally worth the wait.
How much sugar is in this? I searched for, but cannot find reliable Nutrition Facts for fresh cane juice. If you happen to know where to find this, please send.*
On Monday, I’ll file the last of these Cuba posts, this one on food availability.
Note: the resumption of diplomatic relations and agreement to reopen embassies yesterday should make travel much easier.
*Answer to query: Thanks to Andy Bellatti and Cara Wilking for sending this link to a Nutrition Facts label for cane juice. No wonder it was so good: 30 grams of sugar in 8 ounces!
This was my third trip to Cuba. I came with other groups in 1990 and 1992 at the beginning of what Cubans refer to as the “Special Period,” the economic disaster caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the end of its support for the 1959 Castro revolution, and the U.S. embargo on trade with Cuba.
The embargo also required countries that trade with the U.S. to stop trading with Cuba. For tourists like me, the lingering effects of the embargo are the travel restrictions, the failure of U.S. cell phones to work, and the scarce and slow Internet access. Hence: Offline.
But change is imminent. I heard many Cubans mention December 17, the day of President Obama’s 2014 announcement of resumption of relations with Cuba, as if it ought to be celebrated as a national holiday.
Our group traveled by charter flight from Miami. My first surprise: We were not alone: The Miami airport devotes two entire concourses exclusively to Cuban charter flights. As many as 20 flights every day are packed with people who have families in Cuba, business people, and tourists of one kind or another.
Our group was interested in Cuban agriculture and food systems. This post deals with rural agricultural production. In subsequent posts, I’ll talk about urban farming and what the Cuban food scene looks like.
The USDA provides useful background information and statistics on Cuban agriculture.
The 2015 report has this interesting tidbit: US agricultural exports to Cuba rose from $139.2 million in 1956-58 to $365.3 million in 2012-14.
This, however, does not break the embargo; it is classified as sales, not trade. The Cubans buy agricultural products from us, mostly frozen chicken for people, and soybeans and soybean meal for animal feed.
We did not see much agriculture on this trip. There is plenty of land, but gas, transportation, and tractors are extremely limited. The highway between Havana and Pinar del Rio is well maintained but we saw few cars on it. Horse-drawn carts, yes; cars and trucks, no. And lots of land not in production.
The reasons for this go beyond the embargo. We heard repeatedly that Cubans don’t like doing agricultural labor: the population is highly educated, is 80% urban, the climate is hot and humid, and Cuban culture does not value that kind of work.
Much of Cuban food is imported. How much? Estimates range from 35% to 85% depending on whether whoever is doing the estimating is for or against the Cuban revolution.
An official of the agriculture ministry told us that Cuba is self-sufficient or nearly so in eggs, mangos, sugar, and tobacco. I took this photo of mangos grown on the remarkable farm in Pinar del Rio established as a model for sustainability by Fernando Funes-Monzote.
At present, food is grown in Cuba on large farms owned by the state or held by family-owned cooperatives of one kind or another, or on smaller farms that are owned by private individuals or families. Only 70% or so of arable land is in production. The state still has a million hectares to distribute, but has a hard time getting anyone to farm it.
Most production is organic, but not by choice. The embargo makes agricultural inputs unavailable or prohibitively expensive. See, for example, Modern Farmer’s photo-essay on Cuban farming. Rice and potatoes, however, are not organically grown, and neither is most tobacco. We heard from farmers in the exceptionally beautiful Viñales region that tobacco is beginning to be grown organically.
They are proud of their tobacco. It is used for high-quality cigars and is a major cash crop.
The agricultural situation in Cuba, like much else about the country, is full of contradictions.
Tomorrow: urban farming.
I’m still catching up on what happened during the week I was offline in Cuba (more on that later this week).
One big event was the FDA’s announcement that it no longer considers artificial trans fat as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption, meaning that processed food manufacturers need to get rid of it. They get three years to do so.
Here are the relevant documents:
Center for Science in the Public Interest, which has petitioned the FDA to get rid of trans fats for decades, describes this move as a “huge advance.”
As for complications:
I vote for the FDA’s move as a long-awaited step in the right direction. Progress!
This is a roundup of recent items on the effects of bird flu on egg producers: (1) the toll of the epidemic, (2) the politics, (3) the effects on restaurants, (4) the potential for a vaccine, and (5) a Food-Navigator-USA special edition.
1. The toll: According to the USDA’s Chicken and Eggs report, the number of chickens laying table eggs declined by 33.5 million since April 1, a loss of 11%, and the number of eggs is down by 5%. In May alone, 31.4 million layers were “rendered, died, destroyed, composted or disappeared,” four times the usual mortality rate. No surprise, but egg prices went up by 46 cents in the last couple of weeks and now average $2.05 a dozen for Large white eggs Grade A or better (see USDA’s National Retail Report). Since December, USDA says there have been 223 outbreaks of bird flu that have affected 48.1 million chickens and turkeys.
2. The politics: According to an article in Fortune magazine, the flu epidemic is a consequence of industrial egg production, in which many thousands of birds are packed together.
But perhaps the most troubling aspect of the crisis is its implications for the viability of industrial-scale farming. The egg industry’s huge “layer operations”…are designed to protect birds from contamination, says Michael Osterholm, director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota at the University of Minnesota. The animals’ environment is tightly controlled…But when a virus pierces such defenses, or when defenses lapse, having all of one’s eggs in one basket (so to speak) can make the impact more devastating.
3. Restaurants: The Des Moines Register reports that restaurants will be raising prices as a result of the egg shortage.
4. Bird Flu Vaccine: According to PoliticoPro Morning Agriculture, a small company in Iowa says it’s got a vaccine that needs USDA approval before it can be used. But people in the poultry industry think it might be “a non-starter for foreign buyers of U.S. poultry products.”
5. Food Navigator-USA’s Special Edition is called Avian flu in focus: Navigating the egg shortage crisis. As Food Navigator explains, “manufacturers that rely on egg products face some big challenges in the weeks and months ahead.”
While I was visiting Cuba, formerly the largest supplier of sugar to the United States and now blocked from selling anything to us, I missed several stories about sugar. It’s time to catch up with them.
On this last item the Post explains:
While other crop subsidies have withered, Washington’s taste for sugar has been constant. The sugar program, which has existed in various forms since the 1930s, uses an elaborate system of import quotas, price floors and taxpayer-backed loans to prop up domestic growers, which number fewer than 4,500.
Sugar’s protected status is largely explained by the sophistication and clout of a small but wealthy interest group that includes beet farmers in the Upper Midwest, cane growers in the South and the politically connected Fanjul family of Florida, who control a substantial part of the world sugar market.
Attempts to get rid of the sugar program have been constant, at least since the 1970s when I first started teaching about it, but to no avail. Why not? Because outrageous as the program is, it only costs the average American $10 per year—not enough to generate widespread opposition, apparently.
The bottom line on all this: eating less sugar is always a good idea.
I’ve been posting summaries of studies funded by food companies or trade groups, all of which come up with results that the sponsor can use for marketing purposes.
In each of these posts, I ask for examples of industry-funded studies that produce results contrary to the interests of the funder.
In response, I received this comment from Mickey Rubin, Vice President for Nutrition Research, National Dairy Council.
He gave me permission to reproduce his letter:
By way of introduction, my name is Mickey Rubin and I am a scientist at the National Dairy Council. I understand that you know Greg Miller, and I asked him for your contact information so I could write to you directly after reading with great interest your most recent post on industry-funded nutrition research, in which you selected a sample of 5 studies/papers sponsored by industry all showing favorable outcomes. Although none of the papers you selected were sponsored by the organization I represent (although there is one dairy industry sponsored review paper in the list), what struck me is your focus on the favorable vs. unfavorable dichotomy, rather than the reality of what much nutrition science research results in: null findings.
It seems that there are fewer and fewer nutrition studies published that report the null, or find no effect. I agree with you that the reason we don’t see more of these studies in the literature has to do with bias, but I suspect that it is publication bias as much as any other bias. From my interactions with nutrition researchers, I gather it is quite difficult and sometimes impossible to get a study with no significant effects published regardless of funding source, to say nothing of allegiance bias by some researchers hesitant to publish findings that may go against their own hypotheses. Dr. Dennis Bier of Baylor College of Medicine and editor in chief of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition has presented eloquently on this issue previously. You may also be aware of David Allison’s papers on other types of bias. So I think it is important to discuss all types of bias, and not just industry bias. You of course wouldn’t want your discussion on bias to be biased to just one type.
At National Dairy Council we have an extensive program of nutrition research that we sponsor at universities both nationally and internationally. While I can’t speak for all of industry, we strongly encourage the investigators of all of our sponsored studies to publish the findings, no matter the results. Thus, we would expect our sponsored studies to have a similar “success” rate as those sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. In fact, that is exactly what one recent analysis – not sponsored by the dairy industry – found, reporting that there was no evidence that dairy industry funded projects were more likely to support an obesity prevention benefit from dairy consumption than studies sponsored by NIH.
We feel this transparency is not only critical to the credibility of the research we sponsor, but we also feel it is important that our research contributes to nutrition science knowledge as a whole. We hope that other scientists take the findings from studies we sponsor and build upon them, and if it is by using research dollars from other sources, even better! I’ll be the first to stand up and say that one favorable study on milk, as an example, does not close the books on the subject. We need many studies in many different labs sponsored by multiple agencies in order to produce a portfolio of knowledge. I suspect that is certainly an example of where you and I are in agreement.
That all said, please allow me to provide some examples of studies the National Dairy Council has sponsored that are published and, rather than showing a clear benefit, do not refute the null hypothesis. These are all studies published within the last 4 years. It’s not meant to be comprehensive, but rather just a sample similar to what you provided. I could also provide you a list of studies we have sponsored that have shown favorable results for dairy, but you seem to have that covered, and I’ll instead wait until one of our sponsored studies appears in a subsequent blog post J.
Thanks for taking the time to read. I appreciate the dialogue.
Here’s his list of papers:
Studies with null finding:
Bendtsen et al. 2014: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24168904
Maki et al. 2013: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23901280
Chale et al. 2013: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23114462
Lambourne et al. 2013: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239680
Van Loan et al. 2011: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941636
Studies with mixed findings (some outcomes changed, others null):
Maki et al. 2015: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25733460
Dugan et al. 2014: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236646
Here’s what I wrote in response:
I am familiar with charges of bias against independently funded researchers (“White-hat Bias”), which equates industry biases with biases that result from career objectives and other goals. I do not view the biases as equivalent. Industry-sponsored research has only one purpose: to be used in marketing to sell products. As I have said repeatedly, it is easy to design studies that produce desired answers.
When I was in graduate school in molecular biology, we were taught—no, had beaten into us—to do everything we could to control for biases introduced by wishful thinking. I don’t see that level of critical thinking in most studies funded by food companies.
You may be correct about the influence of publication bias with respect to dairy studies, but how do you explain the situation with sugar-sweetened beverages? Studies funded by government and foundations typically indicate strong correlations between habitual consumption of sugary beverages and metabolic problems, whereas studies funded by the soda industry most definitely do not. The percentages are too high to be due to chance: 90% of independently funded studies show health effects of soda consumption whereas 90% of studies funded by soda companies do not. This is troubling.
We’ve seen the results of studies funded by tobacco and drug companies. Are food-industry studies different? I don’t think so. What seems clear is that industry-induced biases are not recognized by funding recipients, a problem in itself.
That’s why I’m posting these studies as they come in and begging for examples of industry-funded studies that do not favor the interests of the donor.
Thanks to Mickey Rubin for writing and for permission to reproduce his letter.
Let the discussion continue!
Politico Morning Agriculture reports today on an unprecedented move by the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). The committee sent a letter to members of Congress to protest legislative interference with its scientific process.
Recall: The DGAC’s research report alarmed meat producers when it said that sustainability needed to be considered in developing dietary guidelines.
Of course sustainability should be considered in developing dietary guidelines. Agricultural policy needs to be linked to health policy, and it’s high time we did so.
That was not enough. Industry groups induced the House of Representatives to put this rider in the 2016 Agricultural Appropriations bill:
SEC. 734. None of the funds made available by this Act may be used to release or implement the final version of the eighth edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, revised pursuant to section 301 of the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990 (7 20 U.S.C. 5341), unless the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services comply with each of the following requirements:
(1) Each revision to any nutritional or dietary information or guideline contained in the 2010 edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and any new nutritional or dietary information or guideline to be included in the eighth edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans shall be based on
(A) scientific evidence that has been rated ‘‘Grade I: Strong’’ by the grading rubric developed by the Nutrition Evidence Library of the Department of Agriculture; and
(B) shall be limited in scope to only matters of diet and nutrient intake.
Politics in action!
As I told Politico Morning Agriculture, I’ve never heard of a DGAC writing directly to Congress. But I understand its frustration. The committee was asked by USDA and HHS to review and consider the science of diet and health and did so. It reported what its members believe the science says. Some segments of the food industry don’t like the science so they are using the political system to fight back. The idea that some members of Congress would go along with this is shameful.
CSPI has organized a letter-writing campaign to defeat the rider and provides these tools:
Let’s keep Congress out of the dietary guidelines process. The process may not be perfect but scientific committees do the best they can to advice the public about dietary practices that are best for health—and, at long last, the environment.
Political interference with this process is not in the best interest of public health, and should be strongly discouraged. If you agree with this view, CSPI makes it easy for you to say so. Sign on now.
Update, June 25: Politico Morning Agriculture reports today that the Senate bill reads: “None of the funds appropriated in this Act may be used to issue, promulgate, or otherwise implement the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans edition unless the information and guidelines in the report are solely nutritional and dietary in nature; and based only on a preponderance of nutritional and dietary scientific evidence and not extraneous information.”
I’m catching up with events I missed while offline in Cuba. Here’s one: Michele Simon’s new report:
The American Society for Nutrition (ASN) is the leading organization for physicians and scientists who conduct nutrition research. I’ve been a member for years and have long fretted about the ASN’s too-cozy relationships with food company sponsors (for example, see my posts on the ill-fated Smart Choices campaign and on a recent ASN annual meeting).
Simon has now done for the ASN what she previously did for the American Academy of Dietetics.
A few of her findings:
I’m quoted in the report:
I think it’s important that professional societies like ASN promote rigorous science and maintain the highest possible standards of scientific integrity. Research and education about food and nutrition are easily influenced by funding from food companies but such influence often goes unrecognized. This means that special efforts must be taken to avoid, account for, and counter food industry influence, and organizations like ASN should take the lead in doing so.
The report has been well covered by the media:
Relations between nutrition scientists and food companies worry me. Here’s another example: Portuguese nutritionists have produced an e-book extolling the virtues of cereal-based drinks. The book is sponsored by Nestlé (the company, not me). Nestlé, no surprise, is the market leader for these products in Portugal. I thank Vladimir Pekic of BeverageDaily.com for finding this one.
Based on research for the book, I know that Cuba is one of the last remaining countries in which Coke and Pepsi cannot be marketed. North Korea is another. Myanmar used to be in that category, but came out of it a couple of years ago.
So I was fascinated to see this street cart in Old Havana (Coke hecho en Mexico):
And in a small market near the Hotel Nacional (Pepsi bottled in El Salvador):
And in a suburban supermercado outside of Havana (3-liter Cokes from Mexico):
As for soda marketing, it’s only collectors’ items. These are on the wall of Paladar San Cristóbal, in Central Havana:
As I’ll discuss in later posts, these are harbingers of marketing to come.